The Fortress of White Stone


Red-brick walls and a red clock tower: this picture usually comes to mind when you think about the Moscow Kremlin. However, one of the world's largest medieval fortresses hasn't always been literally red.

Some 200 years ago, Russia's oldest landmark looked completely different. A graphic reconstruction based on paintings, engravings and plans from that time reveal that the walls were made from white stone and were likely much lower than their current iteration, showing the changes Russia's main fortress has undergone through the centuries.